Understanding the Link Between Diabetes and Appetite


Why Has My Appetite Changed?

Diabetes and AppetiteOne of the odd things about diabetes is that it can cause people to lose their appetite, or conversely, can cause them to feel hungrier than usual.

Both extremes are usually a warning sign of some possible issue to your health so it’s important (even if you have not been diagnosed with diabetes) to know about how your appetite can signify a potentially more serious health problem.

Loss of Appetite

Many people would be delighted to lose their appetite if that made it easier to lose some weight, but when appetite loss is linked to diabetes it can be dangerous.

Gastrparesis

One possible cause of loss of appetite is gastroparesis, a condition where food moves too slowly through the digestive tract.

This happens when over time high blood glucose levels damage the vagus nerve — the nerve that supplies nerve fibers to the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), lungs, heart, esophagus, and intestinal tract.

When this occurs, the muscles in the gut can no longer move food easily out of the stomach into the small intestine to continue the digestion process. This state is called gastroparesis.

As well as loss of appetite, symptoms of gastroparesis include weight loss, heartburn, abdominal bloating, reflux, nausea and vomiting undigested food. Additional symptoms might present as high or low blood glucose levels and stomach spasms. The condition makes blood glucose levels more difficult to control.

Ketoacidosis

Another diabetes-related condition that can cause appetite loss is diabetic ketoacidosis — a complication that occurs when hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) goes untreated and high levels of ketones build up in the blood and urine.

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When your body does not produce enough insulin, the cells are unable to use glucose for fuel. As a result, the body begins breaking down fat for energy, a process that produces ketones.

Although the first symptoms of hyperglycemia can develop slowly, diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency.

As well as loss of appetite, symptoms to look out for include significant weight loss, frequent urination and confusion. Vomiting is another sign of ketoacidosis that requires immediate medical attention as loss of consciousness and coma can occur.

Increase in Appetite

You might be more concerned that rather than decreasing, your appetite seems to have increased.

Are you hungry all of the time? Has your appetite increased dramatically so that you are still hungry even after you have eaten? You might have polyphagia.

It’s a funny word. Wikipedia explains: “It derives from the Greek words πολύς (polys) which means “very much” or “many”, and φαγῶ (phago) meaning “eating” or “devouring”.

Polyphagia is the medical term used to describe excessive hunger or increased appetite. It’s not always caused by diabetes but it is one of the symptoms doctors look out for when diagnosing the condition, particularly when it it’s not in response to normal things such as intensive exercise or other strenuous activity.

Also known as hyperphagia, it is one of the three main symptoms of diabetes, along with polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyuria (frequent, excessive urination.) Doctors sometimes refer to this trio as “the three Ps.”

Next page: other factors that can impact your appetite.

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